Last Updated on February 28, 2022 by Allison Price
Horses’ ability to flex and recover from injuries is determined by their head-neck-shoulder connection. They also play an important role in their agility and athleticism. To counteract the actions of his hind end, the horse balances by using his neck and head. To maintain or regain balance, he can adjust his speed and direction by raising or lowering his head.
Horse face length vs. Neck length
The neck length should not be shorter than the face of the horse. A clean, refined throatlatch is also important.
The length of the head (measured between poll and upper lip) should not be greater than his neck (measured between poll and withers). The necklatch area between the head and the neck behind the jaws must be defined. It should not be too thick or meaty. A clean throatlatch allows for more space in the windpipe and improves the horse’s ability to breathe when they are working hard. This allows for more motion for the neck and head. The throatlatch can become too thick due to excess fat/muscle, which can affect the blood supply, windpipe, and esophagus. When the horse tucks his heads, they can restrict their movement. A wide jaw and throatlatch hookup is necessary; a narrow throatlatch can constrict the airway.
For a draft horse, a thick neck is fine. However, it is too long for a horse riding. The neck is the link between the head and shoulders. It must be long enough for the horse’s head to swing up and down, which is essential for balance. It should measure from poll to withers and be approximately 1/3 of the horse’s overall length. It should be long and straight, with a slight arched topline and relatively straight underside.
A neck that is too long must be smaller than a head. Otherwise, the horse will be overweight and heavy in the front. The neck and head (in relation to the body), are like a small weight at one end of a lever, which can be used for balance to a heavier weight (hindquarters).
This principle is used by a galloping horse. The neck and head are raised when the hind feet touch the ground and push the horse forward. To counterbalance the hindquarters lifting, the neck and head of the horse are raised as the hind feet touch the ground. This allows the hind legs to come forward for another step. The horse then shifts his weight back as his hind legs touch the ground so that he can lift his front legs from the ground. This cycle continues: head and neck rising, reaching forward, then down, then rising again. A longer neck is more desirable than one with a shorter length. The horse is able to raise and lower his head easily, depending on the position he needs for balance.
Transition from neck to shoulder
For best balance, the neck transitions to your chest at or above your point of shoulder.
Proper balance is dependent on how the neck is placed on the shoulders. The neck should have a smooth transition between shoulder and neck. It shouldn’t be too high or too low. If the neck is too low that there is barely any breast above the base of the neck (the neck set horizontally), the horse will appear to be leaning forward and will struggle to collect. He is unable to balance or move with agility. The neck’s base (departure from chest) should be at the level of the shoulder point or higher. Shoulder action can be restricted if the neck and head are too low. The forelegs cannot be lifted high enough or forward enough to allow for a smooth stride. This will reduce the horse’s speed and jump ability.
The seven neck bones form an S-shape. The top curve is right behind the head, and the bottom curve joins the thoracic vertebrae. The base of your neck connects to the first long-spine vertebrae that make up the withers. These two curves, located behind the head and hooking into shoulders, determine the shape, length, and functional mobility for the neck.
Mobility of the head is dependent on the mobility of the first two vertebrae. The atlas is the first neck vertebra, which hooks onto the skull. It is located behind the poll and forms an angled ridge. The atlas can slide over the second vertebra so that the horse can nod his head upward and downward without moving his entire body. This allows him to flex at his poll and make tight bends in his neck, bringing the chin towards his chest. He can flex his neck at the poll with greater ease because of this neck flexibility.
Neck length proportional to leg length
To achieve the best balance and eye appeal, the neck of a horse should be approximately the same length as its front legs.
The neck length should be equal to the length of your body. It should also be approximately the same length as your front legs. The neck should measure from the poll to the top of the withers and be approximately 1.5 times the length. Because it can move more freely and faster, a neck that is extremely short or thick is a hindrance to balance. Horses that use their neck and head less during athletic movements are more likely to be clumsy. A thick, short neck and thick throatlatch restrict flexion at the poll. This can also limit side-to-side mobility. For proper balance and collection, it is important to be able bend and flex.
A thick neck means a longer neck. It is more muscular and heavier, which makes it less flexible. A stiff neck, that is unable to bend properly to bring the head closer to the body, can also make the horse’s agility suffer. A shorter neck is more common than a straight shoulder. A shorter neck will result in a shorter stride because the neck muscles pull the front leg and shoulder forward. A horse with a shorter neck may be able to sprint quickly, but his stride will be much slower than one with a longer stride. He must also move his legs more frequently, which adds stress to his legs.
Draft horses can benefit from a short, bulky neck and a large head. However, he must lean into his harness to pull heavy loads. There is plenty of neck muscle to move the shoulders. He pulls well because of his heavy head, neck, and shoulders.
For a horse riding, a neck too long could cause the horse to be too forward in balance and agility. A longer neck will be less flexible than one that is average in length. The horse’s neck contains 7 vertebrae. A long neck means that there is more space between the vertebrae (longer-bodied vertebrae), and thus is less flexible. A shorter neck is more flexible because its joints are closer together.
Horses with too long necks may not respond well to the bridle. A narrow neck and impaired airways can be accompanied by a long, thin neck. A long neck can cause the horse to tire more quickly if he is working hard. He may tire and drop his head. This can cause him to put too much weight on his fronthand. His stride will also become less efficient and uneven as the neck muscles no longer support it.
The neck muscles pull the shoulders forward and the front legs forward with each step. The neck muscles can contract and extend up to two-thirds of their length. A short necked horse will have a shorter stride if the shoulder is high up. Horses with weak neck muscles or too short neck muscles will be unable to run as fast as horses with long neck muscles.
Important importance of neck shape
Even though the neck may be long enough to allow for balance and mobility, there are some structural elements that can make it difficult for horses to move freely, especially when riding. Certain neck types make it more difficult to pick up the horse, which can create additional challenges when communicating with the bit.
Neck structure from crest to withers
The functionality of the neck is determined by the shape of its internal neck structure.
It is more important to have a neck shape (formed by its bone structure) than its length. Each vertebra of the neck is different in size and shape. The joints between them allow the bones to form an S-shape. The neck bone column, which is composed of the vertebrae, does not follow the line of the neck. It forms two curves.
The crest is formed by a small curve at its top (just behind the head) and a wider curve at its bottom (between the shoulders), where the neck hooks into one of the taller vertebrae in the withers. The proportions of S curves in the vertebrae will determine the shape of the horse’s neck. This includes whether the horse has an ewe neck (or a bull neck), swan neck (or a normal curved neck).
Head, neck and shoulders in action
Horses that are highly trained and athletic exhibit beauty and functionaility. This is partly due to the way they conform to their neck, shoulder, and head.
The shape of the neck’s lower curve in the S is the most important. This will allow the horse to have a more stable neck for better maneuverability and collection. It will also make it easier for the rider and the horse to properly support his neck and head for good flexion. A horse who has a shorter and shallower curve will have a much easier time straightening it (which the horse must do by himself).
The horse will be necked if the lower curve is too deep and large, or attaches low to the chest. The neck should be too low at the base. It is difficult to get the horse to lower or move his neck. The thickest part a horse’s neck runs along the lower curves of the S. Therefore, a horse with an ewe neck (longer, deeper curve) will have his neck wider than the midpoint of his shoulder. The horse with properly arched necks (with a shallower, flatter curve that extends higher from the shoulder area) has the largest neck. This is because it offers more potential for muscle development and maneuverability.
The head’s position on the neck is determined by the upper curve of S. An abrupt attachment at the throatlatch and an acute angle at it (hammerhead), creates a short upper curve. The head is also often too high and cannot flex at the poll. An upper curve that is medium to long creates a better angle at throatlatch and allows the horse to move better at the poll.
A well-proportioned horse’s neck is straight and well arched. The area between the ears and the attachment of the skull to the first vertebra is flat. How the horse holds his head and how the neck connects to the withers can often determine the length of the neck. The neck should be long if these hook-ups are elegant and professional. The neck may be too short if they are abrupt. The neck could be too long if they look loose, or the head is not properly attached to the atlas vertebra. The neck will balance well if it fits onto the shoulders.
The horse with ewe-neck has an upside-down neck. The top line is not arched but concave. The head forms a right angle to neck at throat. The neck is steeper than the withers and the muscles below the neck are thicker. This neck structure makes it nearly impossible for horses to bend at the poll.
The horse will develop an ewe neck if the S curve is too steep and wide, regardless of how large or shaped the S curve. This neck structure is common in horses that have an upright shoulder. The upright shoulder and the longer lower curve of their necks tend to be paired together.
The horse with ewe neck has difficulty getting a proper bend in his neck to allow him to flex at the poll and give the bit. He finds it difficult to straighten his lower curve in order to allow for proper flexion. It is therefore more difficult for a rider or horse to grab him and get him to shift his weight backwards, so that he places more weight on his hindquarters than his front legs. This horse is more agile than the others and can travel heavier in front when he’s being ridden. Because of the curve of his neck, it is more difficult for the horse to accept the bit if he raises his head above his shoulders.
A short neck means that the horse with an ewe-necked neck has a thicker neck. This may make it less obvious than a horse with longer necks. A short-necked horse is defined by a narrow upper curve (behind his head), which creates a thick, rigid juncture (hammerhead) between neck and head. These horses can be difficult to train and collect due to their inflexibility at the head-neck junction. They also have a tendency to become hard-mouthed.
A long necked horse with an ewe-neck has a shorter upper curve behind his head, creating a small crest at top of neck. However, the neck structure is still concave and not arched. When the rider asks the horse to move, the dip in front of his withers creates a kink at the neck. This type of horse is easier to capture if the head is not too high. The kink in the neck that is too high can cause stiffness.
Although this neck doesn’t have a proper topline it isn’t as obvious as the ewe. The swan neck has a top that arches beautifully, and the neck hookup is normal with a good necklatch. However, the bottom one-third, which is closest to the shoulders and withers, is concave like an ewe neck. This neck is usually too low to the chest with the base below your shoulder. The withers can be prominent with a dip in neck before the withers. This creates the same kink as an ewe-necked mare’s neck.
The swan neck is similar to the ewe neck in that it prevents proper flexion due to poor angle and hookup. Horses tend not to keep their heads up high enough to interfere with proper bit contact. Bit pressure can cause horses to throw their noses in the air, which can lead to rubbernecking and a lack of control. A horse with a long swan neck may be more inclined to lean on the bit, and then tuck his nose into his chest. This neck can easily become bent, with the chin touching his breast. The horse may avoid proper bit control and contact by doing this.
As important as how the head is placed on the neck, the position of the neck and shoulders are. The shape of the neck is affected by how the neck and shoulders are connected. The neck should be positioned high above the shoulders, with a defined breast area below. If the neck is too low, such as in a zebra’s, where the neck appears to start between the front legs, and there is no visible breast beneath it, then the neck is almost as thick (thickest from top to bottom) than the body. This is because the horse is very flexible.
Horses may not have any arch in their necks. The neck’s top and bottom lines are straight. There is no concavity, or convexity. Horses may have an upward curve at the bottom of their necks, but a straight topline without any crest. Some necks look like a zebra neck, with a straight top and bottom. Horses with straight necks are unable to properly balance and flex.
I’m Allison, born and raised in San Diego California, the earliest memory I have with horses was at my grandfather’s farm. I used to sit at the stable as a kid and hang out with my Papa while he was training the horses. When I was invited to watch a horse riding competition, I got so fascinated with riding!